Mocks and Stubs

Learning Goals

  • Understand what mocking and stubbing is and why we would use it.

Vocabulary

  • Mock
  • Stub

Warmup

  • In Black Thursday, how many of your tests are loading CSV data? How many tests rely on other classes?
  • Have you attempted to adjust those tests/your code to not rely on CSV data? Had any luck?

Paired Exercise

Setup

To get access to methods that create mocks and stubs, we’ll need to install and require mocha.

gem install mocha

Once that’s set, create a bob_ross directory with lib and test sub-directories. Create a bob_test.rb file in your test directory with the following code:

require 'minitest/autorun'
require 'minitest/pride'
require 'mocha/minitest'
require './lib/bob'

class BobTest < Minitest::Test
  def test_it_exists
    bob = Bob.new
    assert_instance_of Bob, bob
  end

  def test_it_starts_with_no_paints
    bob = Bob.new
    assert_equal [], bob.paints
  end
end

Note that we have required mocha/minitest at the top of the file.

Pair Work: Work with your partner to make the first tests pass. You should not create a Paint class at any point during this lesson.

Mocks

Let’s imagine we wanted to test Bob’s paints method to see that it returns a collection of Paint instances. We might write a test like the following.

def test_it_can_have_paint
  bob = Bob.new
  paint_1 = Paint.new("Alizarin Crimson")
  paint_2 = Paint.new("Van Dyke Brown")

  bob.add_paint(paint_1)
  bob.add_paint(paint_2)

  assert_equal [paint_1, paint_2], bob.paints
end

Turn and Talk: What would we have to do to make this test pass?

In this particular example, we could go work to make the Paint class to move this test forward. That wouldn’t be too bad because this example is pretty short. Imagine if the Paint class needed to hit an API in order to retrieve its color. Then we would have to implement all of that functionality before we could move forward with the Bob class. We might have a case where our teammate is already working on the Paint class and we don’t want to duplicate work. We may also want to isolate this test from that particular interaction so that if a test breaks it is easier to identify what exactly has broken.

Mocks are objects that stand in for other objects. The other object might be one that’s not implemented yet, doesn’t yet have the functionality we need, or maybe we just want to work with a simpler situation. You can think of a mock as fake or a dummy object.

In the test above, we would have to create a Paint class in order to make this test pass. Instead, we are going to use a Mock object to stand in for a Paint object.

paint_1 = mock("paint")

The argument to the mock method is an identifier. You can leave it out:

paint_2 = mock

Remember, a mock is a simple object that stands in for another object. At the base level, a mock is just a “thing” – a blank canvas that we can use for just about anything.

Pair Work: Update this test so that it uses Mocks instead of Paints. Make the test pass.

Stubs

Let’s add another test:

def test_it_can_return_colors
  bob = Bob.new
  paint_1 = mock("paint 1")
  paint_2 = mock("paint 2")
  bob.add_paint(paint_1)
  bob.add_paint(paint_2)

  assert_equal ["Alizarin Crimson", "Van Dyke Brown"], bob.paint_colors
end

A stub is a fake method. It can be added to an object that doesn’t have that method, or it can override an existing method. We can add a stub to a mock so our fake object will now have a fake method:

paint_1 = mock
paint_1.stubs(:color).returns("Van Dyke Brown")

Now, whenever we call paint_1.color it will return "Van Dyke Brown".

Pair Work: Update this test so that it stubs out the color method for the Mock objects. Make the test pass.

Mock Expectations

Replace your existing paint_colors method with the following:

def paint_colors
  ["Alizarin Crimson", "Van Dyke Brown"]
end

Run your test. What happens?

Mocks can do more than just stand there. They can also verify that they have been called:

paint_1 = mock
paint_1.expects(:color).returns("Van Dyke Brown")

Run your tests and you will notice they now fail. Read the failure carefully.

Change your paint_colors method to pass the test.

Pair Work: Add the following test. Update it to use mocks and stubs so that you can make it pass without creating the Paint class. Then make the test pass:

  def test_it_can_total_paint_amount
    bob = Bob.new
    paint_1 = Paint.new("Alizarin Crimson", 42)
    paint_2 = Paint.new("Van Dyke Brown", 25)

    bob.add_paint(paint_1)
    bob.add_paint(paint_2)

    assert_equal 67, bob.total_paint_amount
  end

Check for Understanding

With your partners, teach back the difference between stubs and mocks. Check the mocha docs for more details.

The Ultimate CFU

  • Can you think of a Black Thursday test you’ve already written that could use mocks and stubs instead?
  • When would you use a stub over a mock with expectations and returns?

Further Reading

  • Martin Fowler - Test Double: link here
  • Gerard Meszaros - Test Double: link here