Before we can do much programming, we need to make sure our machines are properly configured with a functional development environment. Let’s walk through this process now to make sure we have what we need.
Here are the basics we’re going to go over:
- A text editor. Developers need to work with text in a different way than your average MS Word user. We’ll want a text editor designed for software development.
- A system “Terminal” for interacting with our machine from the command line. Fortunately OS X already ships with one.
- OS X “Command Line Tools” – these are some system dependencies needed for some of the tools we will use.
- HomeBrew – This is a “package manager” for installing other developer-related programs. You can think of it as the “App Store for nerds.”
- Git (An application for handling “version control” of our software projects)
- The Ruby programming language, as well as a Ruby “Version Manager” to allow us to install other versions as needed
If you don’t already have a favorite text editor, we recommend using Atom.
Atom is a program where we edit code - it is a text editor with many great features that makes editing code more enjoyable compared to a simple text editor. Atom is commonly used in the software development industry, and we use it throughout your time at Turing.
Similarly, if you don’t already have a favorite browser, we recommend using Google Chrome. Google Chrome is a web browser that is great for general internet perusing, but web developers like it because it has very useful developer tools (the console), which we will touch on in the prework and use extensively during class.
The terminal is a textual interface to your computer. Before Graphical User Interfaces were invented, this was the only way one could interact with a computer.
Nowadays, developers still prefer this interface due to its power, flexibility, and speed.
A Terminal allows you to navigate around folders (called directories) and run programs. For example, when we run
ruby, we are running that program from the terminal.
To launch the terminal, open Spotlight using
Command-Spacebar, type “terminal”, then enter.
If this is all new for you, see Terminal and Editor
Setting Up Terminal Access for Atom
One of the things you’ll do frequently is open an entire folder (like when working on a project) in your text editor. Let’s get that setup:
Open up Atom and in the menu bar, drop down the
Atom menu. Within that, click on
Install Shell Commands and now atom should be enable from your command line.
To confirm that atom is working from your command line, enter
atom . in your terminal. If it is setup correctly, the atom editor will automatically open. If it does not open atom and an error occurs instead, try entering this in the command line:
ln -s /Applications/Atom.app/Contents/Resources/app/atom.sh /usr/local/bin/atom and try the first command (
atom .) again.
Atom also offers a number of different options and packages that you can customize to your liking. This series of videos will walk you through many of them if you’d like to dive deeper.
XCode & Command Line Tools
XCode is a huge suite of development tools published by Apple. If we wanted to develop software for the Apple Ecosystem (iPhone apps, Mac OS Apps, etc), we would use XCode as our editor. But even if we aren’t working in this ecosystem, XCode provides some system dependencies that we’ll want to have available.
You’ll want to install it before attempting to install anything else.
- Install XCode from the Apple App Store (this will probably take a little while to finish)
- Open the application after installing and agree to the SLA terms
xcode-select --install, enter your user password
Now you should have the underlying tools we need to move forward.
Homebrew is a package management system that makes it easy to install hundreds of open source projects and compile them from source for maximum performance on your machine.
Open the Terminal then run the homebrew installation script:
ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"
It will ask you for your password. This is the password to log in to your account on the computer. It needs this because it installs its packages in a place that all users of this computer can access.
When it has completed the installation run
brew doctor and it should tell you that everything is fine:
brew doctor Your system is ready to brew.
Modifying your PATH
If you got a warning from Homebrew about your path, do the following:
echo 'export PATH="/usr/local/bin:$PATH"' >> ~/.bash_profile source ~/.bash_profile
brew doctor again and the warning should be gone.
PATH is a system configuration property which tells your computer which places to look for underlying programs when you want to run a command.
For example, when we type
ruby at the command line to run a ruby program, our
PATH will help the system know where on the system to find ruby. By adding this directory to our
PATH, we’re telling the system how to find the various applications we will install using Homebrew.
When we use our terminal, we’re actually using a program called a “Shell” to interact with the underlying Operating System. Specifically, we’re using a shell called Bash.
~/.bash_profile contains settings and commands to help us configure the shell, so when we have a bit of configuration code such as setting our
PATH, it often goes in our
Git is the version control system of choice in the Ruby community. XCode installed an older version of Git for you, but let’s update it.
brew install git ==> Downloading http://git-core.googlecode.com/files/git-188.8.131.52.tar.gz ########################################################### 100.0%
If you haven’t used git before (don’t worry, we’ll be covering its usage in future classes), we’ll want to configure it with some basic information about us.
We can tell git to configure itself using the
git config command from our terminal. Additionally, we’re setting “global” configurations for git, so we’ll use the
--global flag when we provide it with a new piece of configuration.
Tell git your Name and Email address by using the following commands, substituting your own name and email:
git config --global user.name "John Doe" git config --global user.email firstname.lastname@example.org
As the Ruby language has evolved over the years, new versions have been released containing new features and various upgrades. The first version, released in 1995, was 0.95, and as of this writing we’re at 2.4.
To some extent programs written for one version of Ruby will run just fine on another version, but sometimes you’ll encounter incompatibilities, such that a program needs to be run with a specific version of Ruby.
For this reason, we’d like to be able to install and manage multiple versions on our system. This is precisely the job rbenv handles.
Similar to Homebrew, rbenv provides a script to get everything installed. Run this in your Terminal:
brew install rbenv
The output from your shell will be something similar to:
# Load rbenv automatically by appending # the following to ~/.bash_profile: eval "$(rbenv init -)"
This means that you will need to add the above line (beginning with
eval) to the bottom of your bash profile.
To open your bash profile, type:
Check if it got installed correctly by checking the version.
It should give you a version number rather than an error message.
More information about rbenv can be found here
Now that we have rbenv installed, we’re going to use it to install a specific version of Ruby: Ruby 2.4.1
If you need another version it’ll be same procedure, just replace “2.4.1” in the instructions with whichever version you want.
Install it with:
rbenv install 2.4.1
Setting the Default Version
You can tell rbenv which Ruby version you want to use by default:
rbenv global 2.4.1
To reload your shell, do the following:
Now, let’s create a folder structure to store all of your code. We can start by moving to our home folder, and then creating a Turing folder.
$ cd ~ $ mkdir turing
A few notes:
cdstands for “change directory”, and moves us to a specific place on the filesystem, similar to using the GUI Finder to browse directories on the machine
~is a shortcut for our “home directory”. It will be in a place like
mkdirstands for “make directory”, and it allows us to create new folders on the machine
At this point, we want to enter the directory we have created, and then we will create ourselves a directory for the first module. We call this new directory 1module, so we can use tab complete more easily.
cd turing mkdir 1module
Now that this is complete, you can now get to your first module folder from anywhere through the terminal by typing:
Try It: Move to your home directory using
cd ~. Then use
cd to navigate back to your
Once we get exposed to more projects, homework, etc, our ultimate 1module folder setup will look like this:
1module/ (no git) - homework/ (git) - classroom_exercises/ (git) - morning_exercises/ (git) - projects/ (no git) - project_name_1/ (git) - project_name_2/ (git) - project_name_3/ (git) - etc.